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Kachina

The spirit of the invisible life forces of the Pueblo of North America. The kachinas, or kachinam,
are impersonated by elaborately costumed masked male members of the tribes who visit Pueblo villages
the first half of the year. In a variety of ceremonies, they dance, sing, bring gifts to the children,
and sometimes administer public scoldings. Although not worshiped, kachinas are greatly revered,
and one of their main purposes is to bring rain for the spring crops. The term kachina also applies
to cottonwood dolls made by the Hopi and Zuni that are
exquisitely carved and dressed like the dancers. Originally intended to instruct the children about
the hundreds of kachina spirits, the finer carvings have become collector’s items. The name is
also spelled katchina.

koshari kachina Koshari, Clown
The Koshari Kachina is known by various names-Clown, Glutton, Hano Clown. The
multiple names give some indication of his origin. Koshari or variants of them
may be found in most of the pueblos in New Mexico, as well as in the Hopi Mesas.
They are figures that are both sacred and profane. Their actions, while highly
amusing, are not what the Hopi or anyone else would like to be caught doing in
public. They are the ultimate example of overdoing everything they set about.
Often pictured with a watermelons, this connotes gluttony.

Navajo Night Chant Yeibichai
This kachina is intended as a replica of the Navajo Talking God, the leader of the
Yeibichai dancers who wear masks of the Yei and appear in the ninth and last night of
the Navajo’s Nightway healing ceremony. The Hopi stage a Navajo Kachina Dance on
First and Third Mesas, led by this kachina. The corn plant in the center of the
mask signifies life and a prayer for a rich harvest.
Navajo Night Chant Yeibichai

blue corn maiden Blue Corn Maiden
The Kachin’ Mana, or Kachina Maiden, is the most ubiquitous of all the women who appear
with other kachinas. If she is carrying blue corn, she is known as the Blue Corn Maiden,
similarly yellow corn, etc. She also changes her name to that of the kachina with whom
she is dancing, although her appearance does not change. Her presence is a prayer for corn.

Palhik Mana or Butterfly Maiden
The Palhik Mana or Butterfly Maiden, is one of the most popular kachinas in the Hopi
carvers’ repertoire. This beautifully dressed figure is not really a kachina, but rather
a woman’s dance personage. Women who appear in the Mamzrau Initiation Dance are called
the Palhik’ Manas. They are never masked except on Third Mesa, although they all appear to
be when carved as dolls. The carvings typically include an elaborate tableta including
butterfly and corn symbols.
palhik mana or 
			butterfly maiden

squash kachina Squash Kachina
Plants are of great importance to the Hopi, because of their dependence upon them for food.
(Corn is the most important food, and most often used plant kachina.) The Patung Kachina, or
Squash Kachina, is a chief kachina of wuya for the Pumpkin Clan. There are relatively few
members of this clan left, and consequently their stories are not very well known. Although
the Squash Kachina’s function as a wuya are unknown, he does appear as a runner on First Mesa.
His effigy is a great favorite for collectors.

Long-Haired Kachina
Angak’china, the Long-Haired Kachina, is a bringer of gentle rains and flowers.
He is the Kokokshi of Zuni, and yet he appears in almost all of the pueblos from the
Hopi to the Rio Grande. His songs are melodic and the dance a beautiful one to see in
the springtime, and is a favorite of the Hopi. The dancers’ long hair worn loose down
the back resembles the falling rain with the eagle breast plumes rising like clouds above it.
These kachinas are occasionally used for the Niman Ceremony on First Mesa. Many varieties of
this kachina exist: Barefoot, Bounding, Navajo, Tewa, Lightning, to name the most
frequently carved.
long-haired kachina

mouse doll Mouse Doll
The Mouse is not a dance figure at all, but rather the hero of a Second Mesa legend.
A mouse undertook to rid the village of a pesky chickenhawk. This he did by taunting
the hawk and eventually tricking him to dive into a stake and impale himself. The
Warrior Mouse, as he is called, is not to be confused with Mickey Mouse, who has no
Hopi roots at all. Hopi do not consider this doll a kachina, and most anthologies do
not include him in their roster.

Great Horned Owl Kachina
Mongwu, the Great Horned Owl Kachina, is a constant favorite of kachina carvers, and the ingenuity shown in
making the heads of these dolls is to be marveled at. The kachina is a warrior who disciplines the clown when
their behavior becomes too outrageous. Appears in Mixed Kachina Dance and in some ordinary dances. At First
Mesa, he takes part in the Bean Dance and in the Water Serpent Ceremony.
great horned owl kachina

crow mother or crow bride kachina Crow Mother or Crow Bride
Angwushahai-i, or Crow Bride, is a Third Mesa Kachina, with the “bride” probably coming because
she talks or sings, and comes dressed entirely in white. On the other Mesas, she is Angwusnasomtaka,
or Crow Mother, the mother of the Hu, or Whipper Kachinas, and is considered by many Hopi to also
be the mother of all kachinas. She appears during the Powamu or Bean Dance on all three Mesas.
During the Powamu, she supervises the initiation of the children into the Kachina Cult and
carries the yucca whips with which they are struck by the Hu Kachinas. Later in the same
ceremony, she leads other kachinas into the village bearing in her arms a basket of corn kernels
and bean sprouts to symbolically start the new growing season properly.

Black Nata-aska Ogre, White Wiharu Ogre
Nata-aska, the Black Ogre, and Wiharu, the White Ogre, carry a saw (sometimes a knife) as well
as a bow and arrows for hunting. Their outstanding feature is their long, flapping jaws, which
they can clack most effectively. These Ogres accompany Soyoko on her trip to collect food from
the children. As a means of discipline, children are told the ogres can swallow them whole,
unless they are good little children. Anglos would call them the “boogymen.”
nata-aska or black ogre kachina wiharu or white ogre kachina

kwahu or eagle kachina Eagle Kachina
Kwahu, the Eagle Kachina, appears most often with Mudheads in the Kiva or Repeat Dances
of early March. The dance is a conscious effort to duplicate the actions and motions of
eagles and is a prayer for an increase of eagles. Eagles occupy a rather unique position
among the Hopi, for they are treated as honored guests, and are given presents just as the
Hopi children are.

Warrior Maiden
He’e’e, the Warrior Maiden Kachina, represents a warrior spirit. It is either a
man dressed in women’s clothes or a woman using men’s equipment, depending on the mesa
where one hears the story. At Second Mesa, the story goes: A young man changed clothes with
his bride in a corn field and was only half-dressed with his hair up is a whorl on one side
and loose on the other, and with his pants on under the dress when he saw his enemies approaching.
(By custom, maidens wear their hair in whorls on each side of their head.) Grabbing his weapons,
he fought them off until assistance arrived. At Oraibi, it is a young maiden having her hair put
up who takes up her father’s weapons till help arrives. Despite the variation in the folktales,
the kachina is a potent warrior, and during the Pachavu Ceremony, she leads a band of fearsome
warrior kachinas to protect the procession. Because she is so potent, there are other guards
who protect certain ceremonies from her dangerous presence.
he'e'e or warrior maiden kachina

hon or white bear kachina White Bear Kachina
Hon, the Bear Kachina, is frequently distinguished only by color, such as white, black,
blue, or yellow. All Bear Kachinas are believed to be very powerful and capable of
curing bad illnesses. They are great warriors. Bear Kachinas appear most often in the
Soyohim or Mixed Dances of springtime, or occasionally as side dancers for the
Chakwaina Kachaina, a great warrior kachina.

Hemis Kachina
The Hopi have several borrowed kachinas, the Hemis Kachina, or Jemez Kachina,
is one of them. Kachinas are borrowed from other puebloes because they appear
particularly effective in bringing rain or in exercising their other attributes.
The Hemis Kachina is most often used for the Niman or Home-Going Ceremony when
the kachinas leave the Mesas for six months. It is one of the most appropriate
kachinas for this farewell, as it is the first kachina to bring mature corn to
the people, indicating that the corn crop is assured.
hemis or jemez kachina

koyemsi or mudhead kachina Mudhead Kachina
Koyemsi, or Mudhead Kachina, is a multi-faceted clown borrowed from Zuni. They may
appear as a chorus, and on First Mesa and possibly other villages their songs are in Zuni.
During the rests in a dance, they may engage in games with the boys and girls in the audience.
At other times, only a single Mudhead may appear as a drummer for a group. Should a dancer
not have the proper mask or be late in arriving, he can easily become a Mudhead by donning
that mask. These kachinas appear in almost every Hopi dance.

Left-Handed Hunter Kachina
Siyangephoya, or Left-Handed [Hunter] Kachina, is said by some be be derived from
the Hualapai Indians, but other Hopi attribute them to the Chemehuevi. He is
left-handed because his gear is reversed, and to draw an arrow from the quiver, he
must use his right hand rather than his left, as is normal. This kachina moves with
strange bobbings and little mincing steps. Despite his odd behavior, he is supposed
to be an excellent hunter. In carvings, he is usually shown with a rabbit at his feet.
siyangephoya or left-handed hunter kachina

toho or mountain lion kachina Mountain Lion Kachina
Toho, or Mountain Lion Kachina, often accompanies such animals as the
Deer or Antelope Kachinas when they appear in the Line Dances of spring.
However, during the Pachavu or Tribal Initiation about every fourth year,
Toho appears as a guard. Armed with yucca whips, he patrols the procession in
company with He-e-e, Warrior Woman, and other warrior or guard kachinas.

Snake Dancers
Chusona, or Snake Dancer, is mistakenly taken for a kachina. It is not, being
rather a society personage, but one of great popularity. The Snake Dance has
always had a intense fascination for the non-Hopi, and in consequence effigies
of this personage have been carved for many years. As a side note, this summer
dance had been ruled off limits to non-Hopi, because the crowds attending had
become so offensive to the Hopi religious sensibilities.
chusona or snake dancer

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